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Hotel Liability -- Have You Checked Your Parental Release Forms Lately?

Florida Supreme Court Invalidates Parental Release Forms

By Jim Butler
September 15, 2009

A recent opinion out of Florida involving a fatal ATV accident to a 14 year old at an ATV track could have a major impact on the validity of parental release forms. In the case of Kirton v. Fields, the Florida Supreme Court ruled that a pre-injury release signed by a parent is not valid against a minor who is injured while participating in a "commercial activity." While other courts have reached similar results, the Kirton case has attracted nationwide attention and may lead those other states that currently uphold parental release forms to change their law to follow Florida's lead.

Hotel lawyer update on parental releases by Mark M. Rosenthal & Brian M. Yates

In Kirton, the Florida Supreme Court found that a pre-injury release executed by the parent of a 14 year-old boy who died in an ATV accident could not be used to protect the operator of a motor sports park from liability in a wrongful death suit filed by the boy's mother. The court reached this conclusion even though the boy's father stated that he fully understood the risks involved with the activity and knew what he was signing. In fact, the young rider himself had previously been involved in a serious accident at the same facility riding the same type of ATV. In spite of those factors, the court held that public policy considerations prohibited a parent from binding a minor child to a release of liability for negligence.

Only Applies to Commercial Activities

The Court took pains to stress that it was only "commercial activities" that could not validly use parental release forms; release forms signed in connection with school and other non-profit groups will still be considered valid. The rationale behind this distinction is that profit businesses can better afford the cost of insurance than nonprofits. There may be many instances, however, in which the line between a "commercial enterprise" and a non-profit may not be so easy to draw.

While there are a number of states such as California which appear to still recognize the validity of parental release forms, the Florida decision is not only the majority opinion, but also the clear trend of the recent cases. Thus, companies in every state would be well-advised to assume that any release they ask a minor's parent to sign could later be found unenforceable.

There is no perfect solution to the liability issue created by cases like Kirton, but with some planning a company can at least minimize its potential exposure. First, it is still a good idea to have parents sign release forms. While such forms may be unenforceable against the minor, they may at least prevent the child's parents from filing their own lawsuit.

Assumption of Risk Forms

Even more importantly, a teenager participating in a potentially hazardous recreational activity should sign a carefully tailored separate form; one that has a portion highlighted in bold entitled "Assumption of Risk." This provision should state that the potential activity is hazardous (and spell out the hazards), that the participant has experience performing this activity and nonetheless assumes the risk of injury. A number of cases have held that a knowledgeable teenager may be held to have "assumed the risk" of injury when he or she signed a form acknowledging the risk.

Finally, owners of potentially hazardous recreational facilities used by minors should recognize the risk of an unavoidable lawsuit and plan for it. In addition to taking safety precautions to protect participants and eliminate any potential claims of negligence on its part, if a business allows minors to participate, it should make sure that it carries enough liability insurance to protect the business in the event of an accident in which a lawsuit results and a parental release is found to be invalid. Accidents and injuries are an unfortunate part of the sports and recreation business, regardless of whether minors are involved. Being aware of the current state of the law and making sure that your release forms are properly worded can help minimize the risk when such accidents happen.

Mark M. Rosenthal and Brian M. Yates are members of the Global Hospitality Group® and also the National Sports Law Group at Jeffer Mangels Butler & Marmaro LLP. They regularly help professional sports teams in player negotiations, stadium construction, team purchase and sales, and other transactional and litigation matters. Recently, they have been helping many property owners update their parental release forms in response to the liabilities presented by the Kirton case and its ilk.

About the Author:
Jim Butler is one of the top hotel lawyers in the world. GOOGLE “hotel lawyer” or “hotel mixed-use” or “condo hotel lawyer” and you will see why.  He devotes 100% of his practice to hospitality, representing hotel owners, developers and lenders.  Jim leads JMBM’s Global Hospitality Group®—a team of 50 seasoned professionals with more than $40 billion of hotel transactional experience, involving more than 1,000 properties located around the globe. In the last 5 years alone, they have brought their practical advice to more than 80 “hotel-enhanced mixed-use” projects, a term Jim coined to fill a void in industry lexicon.  This term describes one of the hottest developments in real estate-where hotels work together with shopping center, residential, office, retail, spa and sports facility components to mutually enhance the entire project’s excitement and success. Jim and his team are more than “just” great hotel lawyers.  They are also hospitality consultants and business advisors.  They are deal makers.  They can help find the right operator or capital provider. They know who to call and how to reach them. They are a major gateway of hotel finance, facilitating the flow of capital with their legal skill, hospitality industry knowledge and ability to find the right “fit” for all parts of the capital stack.  Because they are part of the very fabric of the hotel industry, they are able to help clients identify key business goals, assemble the right team, strategize the approach to optimize value and then get the deal done.  Jim is the author of the Hotel Law Blog,  He can be reached at +1 310.201.3526 or

Jim Butler
Chairman, Global Hospitality Group
Jeffer, Mangels, Butler & Marmaro LLP
1900 Avenue of the Stars, 7th Floor
Los Angeles, CA 90067-4308
(310) 201-3526 direct

Also See: Innkeepers' Legal Duties in Dealing with Infectious Diseases / James Abrams / May 2009



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