Development in China:
Stimulation, Evaluation and Formation
Ray Pine, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Hanqin Ziu Zhang, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
PingShu Pi, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
|Fourth International Conference
in Southeast Asia & Indo-China: Development, Marketing and Sustainability"
June 24-26, 2000
|After twenty years of hotel industry development, 39 indigenous hotel
management companies have emerged in China to sponsor the indigenous hotel
chains. However, the complexity of the Chinese economy mechanism and business
environment, and the lack of management expertise slowed the formation
and expansion of these hotel chains This paper examines the growth of indigenous
hotel chains in China and proposes a three stage model
of hotel chain development (stimulation, evaluation and formation)
to assist hotel chain formation in China.
The fast growth of hotels in recent years and the dominance of multinational hotel management companies in China greatly changed the market structure of the Chinese hotel industry. Hotels in China were led in a direction toward re-organization, diversification and rationalization to optimize further development. Local hotel management companies emerged and endeavored to form indigenous hotel chains to improve the management expertise and competitiveness of Chinese hotels over foreign counterparts in the local market, whereas the formation and growth of the Chinese hotel chains is still limited and faced with many challenges during the course of expansion.
Past studies attribute the slow growth and failure of Chinese hotel chains mostly to the business environment and the unique aspects of Chinese political, economic and social system. For instance the government owned property rights of hotels, and protectionism of the local authority (Du & Dai, 1998; Zou, 1998; Wang; 1998). However, more in-depth research beyond the business environment issues should be conducted to reach a more detailed explanation of the actual process of hotel chain formation and expansion. This paper intends to develop a model of hotel chain formation from broader perspectives to assist in such development in China.
The dual nature of the hotel industry as a property business and a retailing
operation (Ingram, 1996) requires real estate investment
and specialized management expertise in the service business, which involves
aspects of business
Environment is the field that hotel chains root in and grow from, though it is often argued that environment is unmeasurable and uncertain to analyze, the understanding of environment can still be very important for the growth of a company. The environment factors can be analyzed as the macro external environment and micro task environment (Zhao & Olsen, 1997). External environment covers five aspects: economic, political, technological, socio-cultural, and ecological. The task environment (Dill, 1958) focuses upon forces affecting the industry and its structure, which is given by Porter (1980) as forces from competitors, customers, suppliers, and substitutes.
Organizational ecology and institutional theory can be used to explain the affect of environment on chain operations. Ingram (1996) explained it was difficult to operate a hotel chain in the business environment of the past century. He attributed the success of hotel chains to the changes in the operating environment faced by chains, which mainly were the supply of professional managers to the hotel industry and the sophistication of control systems, changes in the technical environment especially the accounting and management information systems, changes in transportation methods and travel patterns and the emergence of franchising. In some countries the environment still lacks basic driving forces and the necessary resources for hotel chain growth. In others, the complexity of the environment prevents the growth of the hotel company, which needs further rationalization at the macro level.
On the other side, firms should be sensitive to changes in the environment and take opportunities for growth. Hotel companies should scan the environment to evaluate the firms' intangible assets, the internal strengths and weaknesses within the organization and competitiveness within its task environment (Hall, 1992; Zhao & Olsen, 1997), match the threats and opportunities in that environment with appropriate strategies and then determine how to grow (Olson, Murthy & Teare, 1994).
Faced with the same business environment and market structure, why some hotels can form chains while others fail depends on the organizational capability of the firm. Organizational capability, or core competence, a recent theory in management to exploit the sustainable advantages of a firm, is defined as an organization based capability, that combines and integrates the skills of a set of practitioners working across different business units, and creates superior value for a client (Prahalad & Hamel, 1990).
Overmeer (1997) identified a set of core capabilities in the hotel industry, which included the marketing directed factors of sales, pricing and marketing planning; the operation directed factors of intangible and tangible assets, human resource management, and facility management. However, this is not so specific for hotel chains. Horsburgh (1991) put forward some aspects of hotel chain competence such as real estate development, expertise in brand development and trademark, operation of management contracts and franchising, and expertise in choosing superior site locations.
The formation of core competence of hotel management companies largely determined their ability of operation and expansion. Horsburgh (1991) suggested that hotel chains should identify the sources of advantages and invest in the assets, particularly the invisible assets to develop the core competence to achieve the competitive advantage. The formation of core competence is a process of 'business integration": hotel chains need to integrate their know-how, knowledge and existing competence together (Overmeer, 1997), coordinate diverse production skills and integrate multiple streams of technology (Prahalad and Hamel, 1990). This is even more important for hotel chains that experience expansion by merger and acquisition. They should focus on their tangible and intangible resources, the identification and development of core competencies, and produce stronger competencies (Roberts & Shea, 1996).
A THREE STAGE MODEL OF HOTEL CHAIN FORMATION IN CHINA
A three stage conceptual model is proposed for hotel chain formation in China - stimulation, evaluation and formation.
China has started to transform its economy from the previous soviet style philosophy to a market oriented economy and tried to establish a modern enterprise system (Chai, 1998), setting up group enterprises or conglomerates as an important strategy (Li, 1995). A freer economic system provided more players and competitors in the hotel industry, which made the industry more market oriented.
The fast growth of hotels in last two decades in China has brought about
major changes in the industry, mainly the recent overprovision of hotel
rooms, fierce competition, multiform ownership and management systems,
and imbalanced geographic distribution (Zhao, 1989; Zhang; 1989; Yu, 1999;
Pine, 2000). According to the statistics of the China National Tourism
Administration (CNTA), from 1993 to 1997, China doubled its hotel capacity
from 2552 to 5201 hotels, with room supply increasing from 386,000 to 701,700
(CNTA, 1993-1998). In 1998, for the first time, the Chinese hotel industry
as a whole had a loss of 4.656 billion RMB (approximately US$563 million).
Problems of over capacity and a slump in operating profit may caution the
government and industry to change strategies, not only adding new hotel
inventory ,but also paying more attention to the development of hotel chains
Pressured by the increasing competitive environment
and the structural change of the market, which includes the further reform
of the Chinese economy toward more market orientation, the overprovision
of accommodation facilities, competition from the multinational hotel companies
and so on, the local hotel management companies and thousands of independent
hotels need to find ways to improve their competitiveness and
performance to survive. Chain operation is being
Hotel management companies are motivated to grow by sales growth, product diversification, resource acquiring, market penetration and brand recognition, and independent hotels are motivated to join a hotel chain by stable profit, know-how, various kinds of assistance, brand names, etc. The external pressure and the internal motivations drive the hotel management companies and independent hotels in the direction of alliance.
Both hotel management companies and Independent hotels need to evaluate the possible approaches in their respective circumstances during the course of hotel chain formation. Hotel management companies need to develop their core competencies to gain the organization capability, management expertise, corporate culture to run hotels and scan the environment to determine the most appropriate steps to attract independent hotels to form a chain and expand the chain to more locations. Core competence is a key factor in determining why some hotel companies can form chains while others fail. Hotel companies should also scan the environment to evaluate the firms' intangible assets, the internal strengths and weaknesses within the organization and competitiveness within its task environment (Hall, 1992; Zhao & Olsen, 1997), match the threats and opportunities in that environment with appropriate strategies and then determine how to grow (Olson, Murthy & Teare, 1994).
Environment has a interrelationship with the development of core competence of a hotel management company, as in China's case, the economy is in a transition from a planned system to - market system, where market principles and the central planning mechanisms often conflict. The further reform policies and the legal system have substantial impacts on the business environment in the hotel industry, which will influence the hotel management companies to develop their capabilities to attract independent hotels.
In regard to independent hotels, they need to analyze the comparative advantages of joining hotel chains over staying independent, the benefit versus costs of joining a chain, the differences between various chains, etc. This is a key point for the state- owned hotels, as the ownership system belongs to different government bodies, creating a very complex decision making process as the government agencies are seldom willing to lose control of their hotel assets.
Once the hotel management companies and independent hotels desire to come together, the forms of alliance e.g. direct investment, merger / acquisition, management contract, franchising, consortia, or referral systems, need to be examined to find one or a mixed mode to form a chain. Currently direct investment and management contracts are the most often used methods in chain formation in China, while other forms such as franchising need to be tried.
Once the two parties - hotel management company and independent hotels - reach an agreement toward a common goal, then the strategies of further development need to be formulated. Hotel chains need to employ different strategies to improve productivity and competitiveness, and maintain their market position to outperform independent hotels and rivals. Generally firms have four broad categories of objectives: achieving operating efficiency; achieving uniqueness; managing risk; and learning (Ghosha, 1987; Kogut, 1990). To the indigenous hotel companies, branding is the urgent topic for them to create their identity in the market, then to identity their strategies on geographic expansion, segmentation, and product market position, technology, etc. Through affiliation between hotel management companies and more individual hotels, and integration of operation, the hotel chain could be formed, and based on the new capability of the organization, the chain could expand to a larger scale.
At present the hotel industry in China is facing structural change and the formation of hotel chains is a preferred way to rationalize the fragmented hotel sector. However the complication of the Chinese economic system and business environment makes the growth of indigenous hotel chains very difficult. How hotel management companies and independent hotels in China face the changes in the environment and the industry, evaluate their market situation, and form new strategies toward chain formation will be vital for their survival. This model tries to create a conceptual framework to assist in hotel chain formation from the perspectives of both hotel management companies and independent hotels. As chain operation in the hotel industry is a new topic in China, more research is needed to test this model and explore other aspects of the growth of indigenous hotel chains.
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Professor Kaye Chon
Chair Professor & Head
Dept of Hotel and Tourism Management
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong